For us, bilingual education means that learners study typical school subjects – for example, maths or geography – through an additional language (such as English) and some subjects through their first language, or they may study the same subject through two languages. Most states followed the lead of the federal government, enacting bilingual education laws of their own or at least decriminalizing the use of other languages in the classroom. However, in 2002, with the passage off the English Language Acquistion Act, or Title III (part of the No Child Left Behind Act), bilingual education became as state issue and lost all federal funding. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Education Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs.
After the 1803 purchase of the Louisiana Territory by the United States, Louisianans used French extensively in government affairs and in social circles. Elsewhere, many localities provided bilingual instruction without state sanction, in languages as diverse as Norwegian, Italian, Polish, Czech, and Cherokee.
Some of the bilingual education programs immersed students in their native language – largely Spanish – while dual immersion programs focused on Spanish instruction and built up English gradually from the early grades. The first bilingual education program in Chicago was opened for Spanish-speaking students in 1968 at Lafayette School.
Any exceptions to the requirements and policies stated above must have the approval of the Dean of the Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development. In addition to this new European scene, the Scheme for the Promotion of Plurilingualism has learned a lot from the first experimental bilingual sections set up in some schools by the Andalusian government in 1998. In 1980 bilingual programs were operating in 183 schools serving 28,337 students in 19 languages. In addition to meeting the minimum university requirements for graduate study, applicants are also required to submit two letters of recommendation from persons able to evaluate the applicant’s potential for graduate study in bilingual education. Bilingual Education is important for all students and needs to be better addressed.
Although bilingual education experts feel that cognitive and affective development should be at the core of the bilingual program, not everyone recognizes these as the primary goals. Since 22 percent of California’s students are English language learners as well as some of the lowest performing students in the state, such programs could provide a possible solution to an urgent problem. Nor is there a reliable record of bilingual certification rates prior to 1994-95.